These articles were generously contributed by Oliver L. Campbell, MBA, DipM, ACMA, MCIM, FCCA. Mr. Campbell was born in 1931 in El Callao, where his father was employed in the gold mining industry. After WWII, which he spent in England, he returned to Venezuela in 1953 and began employment with Shell de Venezuela, and later became Finance Coordinator at PDVSA. He returned to the United Kingdom in 1982, where he later retired in 2002. Campbell returns frequently to Venezuela and maintains an active interest in political affairs: I am most passionate about changing the education system so that those who are not academically inclined can have the chance to learn a useful skill ... the main goal, of course, is to allow many of the poor to get well paid jobs as artisans and technicians.

I'm very grateful to Oliver for allowing me to reprint and share these articles here, which provide further history of the Lake Maracaibo area in which we all once lived.


What are the some of the historical reasons Lake Maracaibo has become so polluted over the years? How did it start, what are the causes of the continuing contamination, the consequences of it all, and what is being done to combat it? Oliver Campbell sums it all knowledgebly in this article.


Who would have ever guessed that the famous Spanish Allied double-agent Juan Pujol, alias Garbo, who played such a crucial role in World War II by helping to convince Hitler that the D-Day invasion of Normandy was merely a diversion for the 'real' invasion, wound up living in Lagunillas working for SHELL after the war?